All relevant points related to First Round Table Conference 1930, which are important for Civil Services Exam, SSC Exam etc are covered below.
- Round Table Conference is a series of three peace conferences between the British Government and Indian nationalists to discuss constitutional reforms in India.
- They were held between November 1930 to December 1932.
- These conferences were based on the recommendations of Simon Report and Mohammad Ali Jinnah to Viceroy Lord Irwin and the then British Prime Minister, Ramsay Macdonald.
- These conferences seemed necessary as a section of British politicians started to support Dominion Status for India.
- Also, the Civil Disobedience Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi became very popular throughout India and the demand for ‘Swaraj’ or ‘Self Government’ was increasing each day.
First Round Table Conference:
- First Round Table Conference was held in London in 1930.
- This was the first ever conference in which British and Indians both were treated equally.
- Indian National Congress boycotted the 1st Conference. Several Congress leaders were in prison due to their involvement in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Princes of princely states etc attended the conference.
- At this conference, B.R. Ambedkar demanded a separate electorate for the depressed classes (SC/ST).
- Due to the boycott by Indian National Congress, all the other delegates were not able to reach a major conclusion.
- First Round Table Conference was regarded as a failure.
- The British now understood the importance of the Congress party in taking any political decision about India.
- Thus, to gain Congress’ trust, Lord Irwin invited Gandhi for direct talks and signed Gandhi – Irwin Pact.