Everything important you need to study for the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) in India is covered in the article below.
Important Factors leading to Civil Disobedience Movement (1930):
1. Simon Commission: This commission was formed by the British parliament to suggest constitutional reforms for India. It contained all white members and Indians were clearly excluded from this commission. This created unrest among Indian leaders.
2. Rejection of Nehru report by Lord Irwin.
3. The arrest of popular revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.
After observing Independence Day on 26th Jan 1930, Gandhi launched Civil Disobedience Movement by beginning his famous Dandi March to produce salt from the seawater in the coastal village of Dandi (Gujarat).
Gandhi chose ‘salt’ to start the Civil Disobedience Movement because:
1. Producing salt from seawater was a common practice of local people but British officials banned this practice and converted salt making into government monopoly. This monopoly deprived local people of a valuable cottage industry.
2. People were forced to purchase salt at higher prices as the government introduced tax on salt prices.
3. By choosing salt, Gandhi was able to connect with every citizen of India as salt is consumed by people from all caste and religion.
- Gandhi started his march from Sabarmati Ashram on 12th March 1930 and reached the coast of Dandi on 6 April 1930 to break the salt law. He was accompanied by 78 companions including Sarojini Naidu, Imam Sahab, Manilal (Gandhi’s son) etc.
- C. Rajgopalachari in Tamil Nadu and K Kelappan in Malabar also broke Salt laws in their respective regions.
- Web Miller was an American journalist who stayed with Gandhi during his ‘Dandi March’.
- With the beginning of Dandi March to break the salt law, several other civil disobedience activities were followed, such as picketing of foreign liquor and clothes, public boycott of law courts, resignation by government servants etc.
- Non-Violence was overwhelmingly noticed in these protests.
- Abdul Gaffar Khan, also known as Frontier Gandhi led the movement in North West Frontier Province during this period. He organized Khudai Khidmatgars or Red Shirts to promote his reforms.
Impact of Civil Disobedience Movement:
- Import of foreign liquor, foreign clothes and other goods fell drastically.
- Revenue collection by the government was highly reduced.
- A sense of unity and nationalism spread across the entire nation.
- It ended the exploitative salt law by the government and provided means of livelihood to the local people.
- Elections to Legislative Assembly were boycotted.
The Extent of Mass Participation:
- Women exclusively participated in this movement by picketing opium and liquor shops.
- Mercantile community actively participated and industrialists such as G.D. Birla, Jamuna Lal Bajaj etc who provided donations to support the movement. Small merchants also came forward and decided not to sell foreign goods.
- Working classes such as dock labourers of Karachi, Choolai Mill workers of Madras, Budge-Budge Mill workers of Calcutta involved in clashes with the police after the arrest of Gandhi in May 1930. Such working class participation was noticed even after exclusion of their working-class grievances from Congress strategy.
- Students who were active since the Non-Cooperation Movement also took part.
- Muslim participation was very low in comparison to the Non-Cooperation Movement.